The four leadership styles include:
Directive Theory, relating to the most invasive, closely done type of leadership. It would include “assigned” power, and as a quality, “determination.” It is authoritarian and exhibits:
1. excessive direction for those who are well-trained and confident of their ability
2. smothering for those of moderate ability but remain uncertain in their ability
3. necessary for those who are new, having ability but untrained, and thus uncertain
Supportive Theory, explained as “high support,” “nanny,” and “Country Club,” and as a quality, “sociability,” providing assistance and support to workers without paying attention to goals. It is non-authoritarian and exhibits:
1. Provides support, development
2. The workers need: repetition
3. does not challenge followers
4. provides feeling of affiliation, community
5. provides human contact, attention
Participative Theory, such as “Team,” “emergent” power, and as a quality, “integrity.”
1. Provides feeling of participating in the task
2. Workers need: autonomy
3. Workers request clarity
4. May be an unstructured situation, which is good for the accomplished, but not novices.
Achievement Oriented Theory, which provide a challenge to workers, can be related to opportunistic management style.
1. Management has high expectations
2. Employees must excel
3. The complexity, challenges, and mixed messages may be problematic to many employees
Each above style informs a path-goal type situation. Each style influences how the path will be focused as it attains its goals.
Yes, leaders can exhibit more than one management style. I have found my own style to be a mix of participative, supportive and when necessary, directive in nature. As I do not consider myself unique, imagine that anyone who has an interest in emotional intelligence and respect for others would exhibit more than one style of management.